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Monday, February 6, 2017

Apricon - Khasiat buah betik

Assalamualaikum& Salam Sejahtera,

Terdapat banyak khasiat yang terdapat pada buah betik. Di sini admin hanya akan senaraikan 10 kebaikan buah betik, termasuklah khasiatnya dalam memusnahkan sel kanser.   




1. Merupakan sumber vitamin dan mineral
Betik mengandungi vitamin A, vitamin C dan vitamin B kompleks serta kaya dengan magnesium dan potassium. Vitamin A dan vitamin C merupakan antioksidan yang kuat membolehkan ia memusnahkan radikal bebas dalam badan (molekul yang menyumbang kepada pembentukan penyakit kronik termasuklah kanser dan sakit kardiovaskular)

2. Mengurangkan tahap kolesterol
Ia menghalang kolesterol merbahaya dari melekat pada dinding saluran darah yang boleh menyebabkan serangan jantung atau strok.

3. Kaya dengan serat dan memudahkan penghadaman
Untuk menjaga kesihatan usus, kita perlu mengambil makanan yang kaya dengan serat. Dengan 1 hidangan sahaja ia mampu memennuhi 1 per 4 dari pengambilan harian yang disyorkan. Jika anda baru sahaja menjalani rawatan antibiotik, pastikan anda makan betik atau minum jusnya, kerana buah tersebut mampu mengawal kesihatan usus anda selepas pengambilan antibiotik.  

Radang pada mulut

4. Mengandungi enzim unik yang mampu mengurangkan keradangan
Chymopapin dan papain adalah enzim protein untuk pencernaan yang mampu mengurangkan reaksi keradangan dalam badan. Dengan memakan betik yang kaya dengan vitamin C, ia mampu mengurangkan risiko untuk menghidapi arthritis (radang sendi).

5. Merangsang sistem imun anda
Vitamin A dan vitamin C, yang terdapat pada betik berfungsi untuk menguatkan sistem imun dan membantu melawan jangkitan. 

6. Mengandungi enzim anti-kanser
Antioksidan dalam betik merupakan agen melawan kanser. Ia mengurangkan risiko lelaki menghidap kanser prostat, terutamanya jika ia diambil bersama teh hijau. Ia juga mampu mencegah kanser dalam darah dan sum-sum tulang anda dengan menghentikan sel-sel daripada berlakunya pengoksidaan. Enzim papain boleh membantu melegakan kesan sampingan kemoterapi.


7. Melindungi penglihatan anda
Beta karotena dan vitamin A membantu untuk melindungi dan membaiki penglihatan. Selain itu, kajian yang diterbitkan oleh Archives of Ophthalmology telah menunjukkan bahawa makan buah-buahan juga boleh membantu mencegah penuaan.


 8. Mencegah pembentukan darah beku
Darah beku menyempitkan atau menyekat saluran darah, atau kadang-kadang ia boleh terlerai dan dibawa darah hingga ke jantung atau otak yang mana mampu menyebabkan serangan jantung atau strok. Betik mengandungi fibrin yang mampu mencegah pembekuan darah agar darah boleh mengalir dengan lancar. Jadi, pastikan anda memakan sepotong betik pada waktu pagi bersama sarapan atau jadikan ianya sebagai jus. 

9. Mengurangkan tahap tekanan
Memakan betik bukan sahaja mengenyangkan malah ia juga mampu membuatkan kita rasa lebih tenang. Vitamin C mampu mengawal aliran hormon yang menyebabkan tekanan dan membawa anda kembali ke keadaan yang stabil. 

10. Bagus untuk kulit
Pernahkah anda perasan bahawa betik selalu digunakan dalam produk kosmetik seperti krim, topeng muka dan pelembut rambut? Vitamin E yang terdapat pada betik dan beta karotena mencegah kerosakan sel melalui aktiviti antioksidan. Vitamin E juga membantu dalam penghasilan kolagen (bahan yang mengekalkan kelembutan dan keanjalan kulit). Beta karotena membantu dalam menghilangkan kedutan dan membuatkan anda kelihatan segar. 

Customer Hotline : 0389273330 / 0389273332

Thursday, January 26, 2017

Penawar Derita Penghidap Insomnia


Pernahkah anda mengalami masalah sukar untuk tidur pada waktu malam atau terjaga daripada tidur pada waktu malam dan sukar untuk kembali tidur? Jika ya, anda mungkin mengalami masalah yang dikenali sebagai Insomnia.
Insomnia ialah sejenis ganguan tidur yang didefinisikan sebagai kesukaran untuk memulakan tidur atau kekal tidur pada waktu malam. Individu yang mengalami insomnia juga tidak mendapat kuantiti tidur yang secukupnya walaupun mempunyai masa dan peluang untuk tidur dan seterusnya mengakibatkan gangguan pada rutin hariannya.
Individu yang mengalami insomnia biasanya akan mempunyai gejala-gejala seperti sukar untuk tidur pada waktu malam, terjaga daripada tidur dan sukar untuk tidur kembali, terjaga terlalu awal pada waktu pagi, berasa penat selepas bangun dan mengantuk pada waktu siang. Individu seperti ini juga menghadapi masalah dalam menumpukan perhatian kepada kerja atau aktiviti harian.
Masalah insomnia boleh terjadi kepada sesiapa sahaja pada semua peringkat umur, terutamanya wanita, warga tua, mereka yang tergolong dalam sosiekonomi yang lebih rendah, penagih alkohol yang kronik dan pesakit yang mempunyai masalah kesihatan mental.
Sekiranya seseorang individu itu mengalami gejala-gejala yang berkaitan dengan masalah insomnia, individu tersebut perlulah merujuk kepada pegawai perubatan agar masalah insomnia dapat dikenalpasti dan dirawat di peringkat awal lagi. Individu yang mengalami masalah insomnia yang kronik biasanya akan mendapat ubat-ubatan yang dapat membantu mengatasi masalah tersebut seperti benzodiazapines atau ubat anti-kemurungan.
Benzodiazepines adalah sejenis ubat yang bersifat sedatif yang mana akan memberi ketenangan kepada pesakit. Penggunaan ubat ini perlu dikawal kerana penggunaannya dalam jangka masa yang lama boleh menyebabkan berlakunya keadaan yang dikenali sebagai tolerans, iaitu semakin lama ubat digunakan, kesan sedatif akan berkurangan. Sehubungan dengan itu, pesakit memerlukan dos yang tinggi untuk mendapatkan kesan sedatif yang sama dan seterusnya membawa kepada keadaan ketagihan. Benzodiazepines boleh digunakan sebagai pengubatan jangka masa pendek untuk penyakit insomnia dan merupakan ubat terkawal.
Selain daripada Benzodiazepines, terdapat juga ubatan lain yang boleh digunakan untuk merawat insomnia seperti ubat anti-kemurungan. Ubat anti-kemurungan digunakan sebagai alternatif kepada benzodiazepines untuk pesakit yang tidak boleh mengambilnya seperti pesakit yang mengalami masalah kemurungan atau individu yang mempunyai sejarah penyalahgunaan ubat benzodiazepines.
Walaubagaimanapun, penggunaan ubat-ubatan dalam rawatan insomnia untuk jangka masa panjang adalah tidak digalakkan kerana ia boleh mengakibatkan kebergantungan kepada ubat tersebut dan mempunyai kesan sampingan yang serius. Justeru, individu yang mengalami insomnia yang ingin memulakan sebarang rawatan perlulah merujuk kepada pegawai perubatan terlebih dahulu.
Selain daripada penggunaan ubat-ubatan, kaedah rawatan yang tidak menggunakan ubat juga merupakan satu kaedah yang berkesan dalam merawat insomnia. Justeru, para pengamal perubatan amat menggalakkan kaedah ini disamping penggunaan ubat-ubatan sebagai rawatan insomnia.
Prosedur kawalan rangsangan merupakan salah satu prosedur yang boleh digunapakai oleh seseorang individu bagi mengatasi insomnia. Pengurusan masa tidur yang baik adalah penting dalam mengatasi masalah insomnia. Individu tersebut digalakkan untuk menetapkan masa tidur yang sama pada setiap hari dan hanya tidur secukupnya untuk merehatkan badan selain daripada mengelak daripada tidur pada waktu siang.
Seseorang itu juga disarankan untuk hanya tidur apabila berasa mengantuk dan mengelak daripada berjaga terlalu lama di atas katil. Sekiranya seseorang itu gagal untuk tidur dalam masa 20-30 minit selepas baring di atas katil, elakkan daripada memaksa diri untuk tidur sebaliknya digalakkan untuk melakukan aktiviti yang mampu membuatkan rasa mengantuk.
Tabiat tidur yang baik juga adalah penting dalam merawat insomnia. Individu yang mengalami insomnia digalakkan untuk melakukan senaman ringan secara berkala pada waktu petang tetapi tidak terlalu hampir dengan waktu tidur kerana ia boleh menyebabkan sebaliknya iaitu menjadi lebih segar.
Persekitaran tidur yang selesa seperti mengelak daripada cuaca yang terlalu panas atau sejuk, bunyi bising dan pencahayaan yang sesuai juga boleh membantu seseorang individu dalam mengatasi masalah insomnia. Selain daripada itu, digalakkan juga untuk berhenti atau mengurangkan pengambilan minuman keras, kafein atau nikotin dan mengelak daripada meminum air dalam kuantiti yang banyak sebelum tidur agar waktu tidur tidak terganggu.

sumber : Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia

Friday, November 25, 2016

What is testicular cancer ??

Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?

Cancer that starts in the testicles is called testicular cancer. To understand this cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the testicles.

Testicles (also called the testes; a single testicle is called a testis) are part of the male reproductive system. These 2 organs are each normally a little smaller than a golf ball in adult males and are contained within a sac of skin called the scrotum. The scrotum hangs beneath the base of the penis.


Testicles have 2 main functions:
  • They make male hormones (androgens) such as testosterone.
  • They make sperm, the male cells needed to fertilize a female egg cell to start a pregnancy.
Sperm cells are made in long, thread-like tubes inside the testicles called seminiferous tubules. They are then stored in a small coiled tube behind each testicle called the epididymis, where they mature.

During ejaculation, sperm cells are carried from the epididymis through the vas deferens to seminal vesicles, where they mix with fluids made by the vesicles, prostate gland, and other glands to form semen. This fluid then enters the urethra, the tube in the center of the penis through which both urine and semen leave the body.

The testicles are made up of several types of cells, each of which can develop into one or more types of cancer. It is important to distinguish these types of cancers from one another because they differ in how they are treated and in their prognosis (outlook).

Germ cell tumors

More than 90% of cancers of the testicle develop in special cells known as germ cells. These are the cells that make sperm. The 2 main types of germ cell tumors (GCTs) in men are:
  • Seminomas
  • Non-seminomas, which are made up of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and/or teratoma
Doctors can tell what type of testicular cancer you have by looking at the cells under a microscope.

These 2 types occur about equally. Many testicular cancers contain both seminoma and non-seminoma cells. These mixed germ cell tumors are treated as non-seminomas because they grow and spread like non-seminomas.

Seminomas

Seminomas tend to grow and spread more slowly than non-seminomas. The 2 main subtypes of these tumors are classical (or typical) seminomas and spermatocytic seminomas. Doctors can tell them apart by how they look under the microscope.

Classical seminoma: More than 95% of seminomas are classical. These usually occur in men between 25 and 45.

Spermatocytic seminoma: This rare type of seminoma tends to occur in older men. The average age of men diagnosed with spermatocytic seminoma is about 65. Spermatocytic tumors tend to grow more slowly and are less likely to spread to other parts of the body than classical seminomas.

Some seminomas can increase blood levels of a protein called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). HCG can be detected by a simple blood test and is considered a tumor marker for certain types of testicular cancer. It can be used for diagnosis and to check how the patient is responding to treatment.

Non-seminomas

These types of germ cell tumors usually occur in men between their late teens and early 30s. The 4 main types of non-seminoma tumors are:
  • Embryonal carcinoma
  • Yolk sac carcinoma
  • Choriocarcinoma
  • Teratoma
Most tumors are a mix of different types (sometimes with a seminoma component as well), but this doesn’t change the general approach to treatment of most non-seminoma cancers.

Embryonal carcinoma : This type of non-seminoma is present to some degree in about 40% of testicular tumors, but pure embryonal carcinomas occur only 3% to 4% of the time. When seen under a microscope, these tumors can look like tissues of very early embryos. This type of non-seminoma tends to grow rapidly and spread outside the testicle.

Embryonal carcinoma can increase blood levels of a tumor marker protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as well as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG).

Yolk sac carcinoma : These tumors are so named because their cells look like the yolk sac of an early human embryo. Other names for this cancer include yolk sac tumor, endodermal sinus tumor, infantile embryonal carcinoma, or orchidoblastoma.

This is the most common form of testicular cancer in children (especially in infants), but pure yolk sac carcinomas (tumors that do not have other types of non-seminoma cells) are rare in adults. When they occur in children, these tumors usually are treated successfully. But they are of more concern when they occur in adults, especially if they are pure. Yolk sac carcinomas respond very well to chemotherapy, even if they have spread.

This type of tumor almost always increases blood levels of AFP (alpha-fetoprotein).

Choriocarcinoma:
 This is a very rare and aggressive type of testicular cancer in adults. Pure choriocarcinoma is likely to spread rapidly to distant organs of the body, including the lungs, bones, and brain. More often, choriocarcinoma cells are present with other types of non-seminoma cells in a mixed germ cell tumor. These mixed tumors tend to have a somewhat better outlook than pure choriocarcinomas, although the presence of choriocarcinoma is always a worrisome finding.

This type of tumor increases blood levels of HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin).

Teratoma: Teratomas are germ cell tumors with areas that, under a microscope, look like each of the 3 layers of a developing embryo: the endoderm (innermost layer), mesoderm (middle layer), and ectoderm (outer layer).

Pure teratomas of the testicles are rare and do not increase AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) or HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) levels. More often, teratomas are seen as parts of mixed germ cell tumors.

There are 3 main types of teratomas:
  • Mature teratomas are tumors formed by cells similar to cells of adult tissues. They rarely spread to nearby tissues and distant parts of the body. They can usually be cured with surgery, but some come back (recur) after treatment.
  • Immature teratomas are less well-developed cancers with cells that look like those of an early embryo. This type is more likely than a mature teratoma to grow into (invade) surrounding tissues, to spread (metastasize) outside the testicle, and to come back (recur) years after treatment.
  • Teratomas with somatic type malignancy are very rare cancers. These cancers have some areas that look like mature teratomas but have other areas where the cells have become a type of cancer that normally develops outside the testicle (such as a sarcoma, adenocarcinoma, or even leukemia).
Carcinoma in situ of the testicle

Testicular germ cell cancers can begin as a non-invasive form of the disease called carcinoma in situ (CIS) or intratubular germ cell neoplasia. In testicular CIS, the cells look abnormal under the microscope, but they have not yet spread outside the walls of the seminiferous tubules (where sperm cells are formed). Carcinoma in situ doesn’t always progress to invasive cancer.

It is hard to find CIS before it does become an invasive cancer because it generally does not cause symptoms and often does not form a lump that you or the doctor can feel. The only way to diagnose testicular CIS is to have a biopsy (a procedure that removes a tissue sample and looks at it under a microscope). Some cases are found incidentally (by accident) when a testicular biopsy is done for another reason, such as infertility.

Experts don’t agree about the best treatment for CIS. Since CIS doesn’t always become an invasive cancer, many doctors in the United States consider observation (watchful waiting) to be the best treatment option.

When CIS of the testicle becomes invasive, its cells are no longer just in the seminiferous tubules but have grown into other structures of the testicle. These cancer cells can then spread either to the lymph nodes (small, bean-shaped collections of white blood cells) through lymphatic channels (fluid-filled vessels that connect the lymph nodes), or through the blood to other parts of the body.

Stromal tumors

Tumors can also develop in the supportive and hormone-producing tissues, or stroma, of the testicles. These tumors are known as gonadal stromal tumors. They make up less than 5% of adult testicular tumors but up to 20% of childhood testicular tumors. The 2 main types are Leydig cell tumors and Sertoli cell tumors.

Leydig cell tumors

These tumors develop from the Leydig cells in the testicle that normally make male sex hormones (androgens like testosterone). Leydig cell tumors can develop in both adults and children. These tumors often make androgens (male hormones) but sometimes produce estrogens (female sex hormones).

Most Leydig cell tumors are benign. They usually do not spread beyond the testicle and are cured with surgery. But a small portion of Leydig cell tumors spread to other parts of the body and tend to have a poor outlook because they usually do not respond well to chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Sertoli cell tumors

These tumors develop from normal Sertoli cells, which support and nourish the sperm-making germ cells. Like the Leydig cell tumors, these tumors are usually benign. But if they spread, they usually don’t respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Secondary testicular cancers


Cancers that start in another organ and then spread to the testicle are called secondary testicular cancers. These are not true testicular cancers – they are named and treated based on where they started.

Lymphoma is the most common secondary testicular cancer. Testicular lymphoma occurs more often than primary testicular tumors in men older than 50. The outlook depends on the type and stage of lymphoma. The usual treatment is surgical removal, followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy.

In boys with acute leukemia, the leukemia cells can sometimes form a tumor in the testicle. Along with chemotherapy to treat the leukemia, this might require treatment with radiation or surgery to remove the testicle.

Cancers of the prostate, lung, skin (melanoma), kidney, and other organs also can spread to the testicles. The prognosis for these cancers tends to be poor because these cancers have usually spread widely to other organs as well. Treatment depends on the specific type of cancer.

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

General Diabetes Facts and Information


What is Diabetes ? 

Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high.

There are two major types of diabetes. In type 1 (fomerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent) diabetes, the body completely stops producing any insulin, a hormone that enables the body to use glucose found in foods for energy. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections to survive. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults, but can occur at any age. Type 2 (formerly called adult-onset or non insulin-dependent) diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (insulin resistance). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly occurring in younger people, particularly adolescents.

How do people know if they have diabetes?

People with diabetes frequently experience certain symptoms. These include:
  • being very thirsty
  • frequent urination
  • weight loss
  • increased hunger
  • blurry vision
  • irritability
  • tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
  • frequent skin, bladder or gum infections
  • wounds that don't heal
  • extreme unexplained fatigue
In some cases, there are no symptoms — this happens at times with type 2 diabetes. In this case, people can live for months, even years without knowing they have the disease. This form of diabetes comes on so gradually that symptoms may not even be recognized.


Who gets diabetes?


Diabetes can occur in anyone. However, people who have close relatives with the disease are somewhat more likely to develop it. Other risk factors include obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and physical inactivity. The risk of developing diabetes also increases as people grow older. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes, although the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adolescents is growing. Diabetes is more common among Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Also, people who develop diabetes while pregnant (a condition called gestational diabetes) are more likely to develop full-blown diabetes later in life.


How is diabetes treated?


There are certain things that everyone who has diabetes, whether type 1 or type 2, needs to do to be healthy. They need to have a meal (eating) plan. They need to pay attention to how much physical activity they engage in, because physical activity can help the body use insulin better so it can convert glucose into energy for cells. Everyone with type 1 diabetes, and some people with type 2 diabetes, also need to take insulin injections. Some people with type 2 diabetes take pills called "oral agents" which help their bodies produce more insulin and/or use the insulin it is producing better. Some people with type 2 diabetes can manage their disease without medication by appropriate meal planning and adequate physical activity.

Everyone who has diabetes should be seen at least once every six months by a diabetes specialist (an endocrinologist or a diabetologist). He or she should also be seen periodically by other members of a diabetes treatment team, including a diabetes nurse educator, and a dietitian who will help develop a meal plan for the individual. Ideally, one should also see an exercise physiologist for help in developing a physical activity plan, and, perhaps, a social worker, psychologist or other mental health professional for help with the stresses and challenges of living with a chronic disease. Everyone who has diabetes should have regular eye exams (once a year) by an eye doctor expert in diabetes eye care to make sure that any eye problems associated with diabetes are caught early and treated before they become serious.

Also, people with diabetes need to learn how to monitor their blood glucose. Daily testing will help determine how well their meal plan, activity plan, and medication are working to keep blood glucose levels in a normal range.


What other problems can diabetes cause?


Your healthcare team will encourage you to follow your meal plan and exercise program, use your medications and monitor your blood glucose regularly to keep your blood glucose in as normal a range as possible as much of the time as possible. Why is this so important? Because poorly managed diabetes can lead to a host of long-term complications — among these are heart attacks, strokes, blindness, kidney failure, and blood vessel disease that may require an amputation, nerve damage, and impotence in men.

But happily, a nationwide study completed over a 10-year period showed that if people keep their blood glucose as close to normal as possible, they can reduce their risk of developing some of these complications by 50 percent or more.



Can diabetes be prevented?


Maybe someday. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, yet we still do not understand it completely. Recent research does suggest, however, that there are some things one can do to prevent this form of diabetes. Studies show that lifestyle changes can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in those adults who are at high risk of getting the disease. Modest weight loss (5-10% of body weight) and modest physical activity (30 minutes a day) are recommended goals.

Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Kanser Otak : Ketahui Jenis2 Kanser Otak


Ketumbuhan pada bahagian tertentu di otak yang memberi implikasi yang teruk pada pesakitnya.

Jenis-Jenis Kanser Otak
  • Supratentorial (bahagian atas otak)
  • Infratentorial (bahagian bawah otak)
Kanser pada bahagian atas otak ialah:
  • Astrocytoma (ketumbuhan otak yang bukan berasal daripada sel-sel saraf);
  • Craniopharyngioma (juga dikenali sebagai tumor Rathke pouch); dan
  • kanser kelenjar pineal.
Kanser pada bahagian bawah otak ialah:
  • Infratentorial;
  • Medulloblastoma (belakang otak);
  • Cerebellar Astrocytoma (ketumbuhan pada serebrum);
  • Brainstem Glioma (pangkal otak);
  • Ependymoma (ketumbuhan serebral yang berasal daripada sel-sel ependimal slia. Ia menyekat cecair serebrospina dan menyebabkan hidrosefalus) jenis yang paling kerap berlaku.
Punca Kanser Otak
  • Genetik atau keturunan;
  • Radiasi pada otak; dan
  • Pesakit AIDS, leukemia, dan pesakit yang mengalami kegagalan buah pinggang.
Tanda-Tanda / Simptom

Pada peringkat bayi mereka akan mengalami:
  • Proses pertumbuhan yang tidak normal - tidak boleh merangkak walaupun berusia enam bulan;
  • Hidrosefalus (kepala besar) kerana meningkatnya tekanan pada kepala; dan
  • ubun-ubun membengkak, bayi akan gelisah, tidak bermaya dan kurang menyusu.
Pada peringkat awal kanak-kanak:
  • Mengadu sakit kepala berulang-ulang;
  • kelihatan letih dan tidak bertenaga;
  • prestasi pembelajaran menurun; dan
  • lebih menderita kerana tekanan dalam otak semakin tinggi.
Simptom yang lebih ketara:
  • Sakit kepala yang lebih teruk pada bahagian depan dan tepi kepala;
  • muntah yang memancut dan sakit kepala pada awal pagi;
  • sawan;
  • kejang pada tangan;
  • kabur penglihatan;
  • kanak-kanak yang menderita pada bahagian infratentorial tidak dapat berdiri atau berjalan dengan stabil;
Sekiranya kanser merebak pada brainstem (pangkal otak) kanak-kanak akan mengalami:
  • Gangguan pada pertuturan;
  • sistem pernafasan terganggu;
  • lemah anggota badan; dan
  • gangguan pada fungsi-fungsi saraf otak.